Cultivar or Varietal?

There is a fundamental distinction between cultivar and varietal. A cultivar is a type of varietal that is, well, cultivated. It's the result therefore of human manipulation. Most specialty coffees are cultivated, although not all. So both designations are often used interchangeably. To be honest, we like the term cultivar, because we can use it in either English or French, it's convenient and anyway we're not difficult with words!

 

 
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WHY cultivars MATTER


It helps to think of wine. We all have our preferences. Some of us might walk straight to the French aisle and pick up a Pinot Noir. Others might favour a Malbec from the slopes of the Andes. Others still might ponder the selection, weighing factors such as what they might be pairing with it, or else take a gamble on more adventurous varietals from obscure wine regions. The point is, once you get to know a thing or two about wine, you probably won’t blindly grab whatever bottle is closest to the cash register. Otherwise the bottles would just be marked ‘wine’ (although, yes, some are, but those are generally to be avoided).

Coffee is similar. Different varieties yield different flavours and aromas. The sweet, caramel-y Bourbons from Guatemala, for instance, might really turn your crank, or perhaps you’re more into Ethiopian Heirloom, with its tea-like, floral notes. Biodiversity plays a large part as well. The more varieties of a plant exist, the better the plant will fare against pests and disease. Arabica coffee in particular is susceptible to such problems. In fact, thousands of coffee varieties have been wiped out over the last centuries, leaving only a handful. And without human intervention coffee in its entirety risks complete eradication, mere decades down the road.

Luckily, one characteristic that plant varieties possess is their ability to hybridize. The creation of new cultivars that are resistant to the coffee plant’s natural enemies is one way to ensure the survival of the world’s most beloved beverage. Here’s a rundown of some of the more common specialty coffee varieties, or cultivars, you might find yourself enjoying.


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coffee adapts

as should we!


COFFEE VARIETalS


BOURBON

The darling of coffee varietals, it’s hard to go wrong with a Bourbon. Named for the island of Bourbon (now called Reunion), where it was introduced by the French in the early 18th century, it was soon brought to Africa and Latin America, where it has since thrived. The plant is rather stout, with broad leaves, and produces rounded fruit in either red or yellow. With its delicate sweetness and wine-like bright acidity, it’s a classic go-to for all coffee-lovers.


Caturra

Discovered in Brazil and now found throughout Latin America, Caturra is a favourite among producers for its resistance to disease and high production (due in part to its short stature, making picking easier). It also produces good quality coffee, with a bright acidity with notes of lemon or lime, and a subtler sweetness.


SL-28

An offshoot of Bourbon, it was developed in the 1930s by Scott Labs (hence the name) for the Kenyan government, who wanted a coffee plant that was drought-resistant, highly productive, with good cup quality. They succeeded on two counts. While its yield is relatively low-to-moderate, the plant is resistant to drought (although remains susceptible to pests and disease), and in the cup it’s a real knock-out, with its complex, balanced flavour, brilliant acidity and almost tropical sweetness.


Pacamara

A cross between Pacas and Maragogype, created in El Salvador in 1958. It sports extremely large leaves, fruit and beans making its precup desirable. Although the variety sports noted chocolates and fruits, it can sometimes posses undesirable tasting notes like onion.


Gesha

(also known as Geisha): Named after the Ethiopian town from which it originated, Gesha was introduced to Costa Rica in the 1950s and eventually made its way to Panama, where it was made famous by Hacienda La Esmeralda. It is to this day considered a rare gem, although it is poised to explode on the scene in a big way. This gangly plant is low-yielding and especially vulnerable to strong winds and pests. It is also quite sensitive to altitude, only really dazzling at heights of 1500m or more. In the cup, it has clean floral notes with an exotic sweetness and a refreshing acidity. Perhaps it is because of the Gesha’s fussy nature, rather than in spite of it, that it really shines.


MUNDO NOVO

A natural hybrid of the Bourbon and Typica varieties, Mundo Novo was discovered in Brazil in the 1940s and now occupies 35-40% of all coffee growing areas in Brazil, due to the fact that it is well-suited to the Brazilian climate and altitudes, is moderately resistant to disease and pests, and can be densely planted. Some say this density has a diminishing effect on cup quality, but a good Mundo Novo can produce an excellent cup, heavy and sweet with lower acidity.


SL-34

The variety of was chosen from French Mission Bourbon, and first appeared in Tanzania and later in Kenya. Although it still yields distinctive fruit flavours it's still regarded as inferior to SL-28 due to its susceptibility to rust.


HEIRLOOM

Thousands of coffee varieties grow in Eastern Africa, and because they often grow in the wild and naturally cross-pollinate, it is almost impossible to distinguish one variety from another. Consequently, the generic ‘heirloom’ moniker was applied as a sort of catch-all. The specific region in which the coffee grows is a more informative marker for delineating in-cup characteristics. For instance, in Ethiopia, you’ll find that Yirgacheffe and Sidama coffees (respectively from regions of the same names) have their own unique flavour profiles.


Maragogype

(ma-rah-go-hee-pay): Also called Elephant Bean, it was first discovered in Brazil in 1870 and is still found there, as well as in Guatemala and Mexico. Related to the Typica cultivar, it is quite low yielding in spite of its impressive height. You know when you’ve come across a maragogype plant because of its almost comically oversized cherries and beans, which, along with its relative rarity, fetch quite a bit of interest on the coffee market. When roasted right it can produce a delightfully smooth cup, mild and subtly sweet.


Typica

Originating from Ethiopia, Typica varietals were eventually brought to Yemen from which it spread throughout the world. It thrived in Indonesia under Dutch rule but ultimately the classic Typica became quite difficult to come across, mostly due to its weakness in the face of disease and pest. Over centuries it has either mutated or hybridized but continue to survive through its progeny. Interestingly, the Dutch gifted a Typica coffee plant to the king of France (this plant became known as the Noble Tree). It was nurtured and reproduced in a greenhouse, and eventually brought to the island of Bourbon, where it underwent a slight mutation, and, well, the rest is delicious history.



What Makes Specialty Coffee Special


 Unlike some terms that are liberally applied to consumables, such as gourmet or premium, the word ‘specialty’ is a quantifiable distinction. It is a very specific designation given to a coffee that is based on the overall quality of the beans. This standardized grading system also places considerable importance on the unique characteristics of various origins, influenced by such factors as soil, varietal, and elevation, to name a few. Specialty classification is determined by a licensed Q-grader or certified coffee taster, and is based on a visual inspection of the beans as well as a tasting, or cupping, as it is more commonly called, of roasted and brewed coffee. 

Visual inspection involves looking for defects such as black or broken beans, bits of cherry, and insect damage, to name a few. Cupping involves brewing roasted coffee and using the grader’s trained palate to evaluate different attributes of the coffee, such as acidity, aroma, body, etc. We take great care to source only the best specialty coffee available. We're constantly cupping coffee here at Bluebarn to ensure that the coffee you’re getting is not only of the highest quality, but tastes amazing as well.


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